Istanbul, Turkey Situated in the city and one of the country’s 81 provinces. It is the most populous, economic, historical and socio-cultural city in the country. The city ranks 34th in the world in terms of economic size and ranked first in Europe and sixth after Lagos in the world according to the municipal borders in terms of population.
Istanbul northwest of Turkey, along the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn is built to be surrounded. Istanbul is an intercontinental city, the European part of the European Side or Rumeli Side, the Asian part of the Asian Side or Asian Side is called. Firstly in the history, Istanbul Walls were the western border of Istanbul which was founded on a peninsula surrounded by Marmara Sea, Bosphorus and Golden Horn on three sides. There are 39 districts of the city , which was expanded 4 times with the construction of the city walls being further advanced to the west. Within the borders, there are 40 municipalities together with the metropolitan municipality.
Istanbul, one of the oldest cities in the world, was the capital of the Roman Empire between 330-395, the Byzantine Empire between 395-1204 and 1261-1453, the Latin Empire between 1204-1261, and finally the Ottoman Empire between 1453-1922. In addition, Istanbul became the center of Islam until the Caliphate passed from the Ottoman Empire in 1517 to its abolition in 1924.
In recent years, important information about human history has been obtained with archaeological findings unearthed one after the other. The stone tools unearthed from Yarımburgaz Cave revealed that primitive human traces date back to 400,000 years. Excavations and surveys conducted on the Anatolian side of the city have shown that the first settled human community based on agriculture and animal husbandry was the Fikirtepe Culture dating back to 5500 BC. These archaeological findings are the oldest human traces not only in Istanbul but also in the entire Marmara Region. The first settlements within the borders of Istanbul are Chalcedon on the Anatolian side; It is Byzantion on the European side. Istanbul, which had been the capital of the states under its sovereignty for hundreds of years before the Republican era, lost this feature when it was moved to Ankara on 13 October 1923; however, it has continued to be the center of trade, industry, transportation, tourism, education, culture and arts.
The geopolitical importance of Istanbul is quite high, as it is home to the Istanbul Strait, which connects the Black Sea with the Marmara Sea and separates Asia and Europe. Today, there are natural harbors that are completely filled or lost. Because of these characteristics, there were long-term sovereignty disputes and wars on the territory of the region. The main streams are Riva, Kağıthane and Alibey streams. The lands of the province are less hilly and the highest point is Aydos Hill in Kartal district. The main natural lakes in the province are Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece and Durusu lakes. Transitional characteristics between Black Sea and Mediterranean macro climates are seen in the province and its immediate surroundings.